Constructivist epistemology Social constructivism holds that truth is constructed by social processes, is historically and culturally specific, and that it is in part shaped through the power struggles within a community. Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities as a pure correspondence theory might hold.
One must note, however, that such… The nature and scope of aesthetics Aesthetics is broader in scope than the philosophy of art, which comprises one of its branches.
It deals not only with the nature and value of the arts but also with those responses to natural objects that find expression in the language of the beautiful and the ugly. A problem is encountered at the outset, however, for terms such as beautiful and ugly seem too vague in their application and too subjective in their meaning to divide the world successfully into those things that do, and those that do not, exemplify them.
Almost anything might be seen as beautiful by someone or from some point of view; and different people apply the word to quite disparate objects for reasons that often seem to have little or nothing in common.
It may be that there is some single underlying belief that motivates all of their judgments. It may also be, however, that the term beautiful has no sense except as the expression of an attitude, which is in turn attached by different people to quite different states of affairs.
Moreover, in spite of the emphasis laid by philosophers on the terms beautiful and ugly, it is far from evident that they are the most important or most useful either in the discussion and criticism of art or in the description of that which appeals to us in nature. To convey what is significant in a poem, we might describe it as ironicmoving, expressive, balanced, and harmonious.
Likewise, in characterizing a favourite stretch of countryside, we may prefer to describe it as peaceful, soft, atmospheric, harsh, and evocativerather than beautiful. At the same time, there seems to be no clear way of delimiting the class in question—not at least in advance of theory.
Aesthetics must therefore cast its net more widely than the study either of beauty or of other aesthetic concepts if it is to discover the principles whereby it is to be defined.
We are at once returned, therefore, to the vexing question of our subject matter: What should a philosopher study in order to understand such ideas as beauty and taste? Three approaches to aesthetics Three broad approaches have been proposed in answer to that question, each intuitively reasonable: In his famous treatise On the Sublime and BeautifulEdmund Burke attempted to draw a distinction between two aesthetic concepts, and, by studying the qualities that they denoted, to analyze the separate human attitudes that are directed toward them.
In more recent times, philosophers have tended to concentrate on the concepts of modern literary theory—namely, those such as representation, expression, form, style, and sentimentality.
The study invariably has a dual purpose: A philosophical study of certain states of mind —responses, attitudesemotions—that are held to be involved in aesthetic experience.
Immanuel Kant, print published in London, Hegel, the Phenomenologists, and Ludwig Wittgenstein more precisely, the Wittgenstein of the Philosophical Investigations .
In considering these theories some of which are discussed below a crucial distinction must be borne in mind: Philosophy is not a science, because it does not investigate the causes of phenomena.
It is an a priori or conceptual investigation, the underlying concern of which is to identify rather than to explain. In effect, the aim of the philosopher is to give the broadest possible description of the things themselves, so as to show how we must understand them and how we ought to value them.
The two most prominent current philosophical methods—Phenomenology and conceptual analysis—tend to regard this aim as distinct from, and at least in part prior to, the aim of science. For how can we begin to explain what we have yet to identify? While there have been empirical studies of aesthetic experience exercises in the psychology of beautythese form no part of aesthetics as considered in this article.Project Gutenberg's Frankenstein, by Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
Immanuel Kant (–) is the central figure in modern philosophy. He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields.
Do not let your adorning be external—the braiding of hair and the putting on of gold jewelry, or the clothing you wear— Berean Study Bible Your beauty should not come from outward adornment such as braided hair or gold jewelry or fine clothes.
What does the word "apologetics" mean? The word "apologetics". is derived from the ancient Greek word apologia, which means, an apology..
Not an apology in the modern sense of the word - which is to say you're sorry for something. But rather, an apology in the ancient sense of the word - which is to make a reasoned defense of something or someone.
A creature's general moral and personal attitudes are represented by its alignment: lawful good, neutral good, chaotic good, lawful neutral, neutral, chaotic neutral, lawful evil, neutral evil, or chaotic evil.
However rare true love may be, it is less so than true friendship.-Albert Einstein “ Friends are those rare people who ask how we are and then wait to hear the answer.-Ed Cunningham “ One of the most beautiful qualities of true friendship is to understand and to be understood.-Seneca “ Silence make the real conversations between friends.