Synopsis 1 Summaries The boy Krishna is abandoned by his mother at the Apollo Circus and she tells him that he can only return home when he can afford rupees to pay for the bicycle of his brother that he had trashed. Krishna is left behind by the circus and he takes a train to Bombay.
Inthe Safavid Empire was on the verge of collapsing— Isfahan and most Summary of bandits of bombay central and east Iran had been seized by the Afghan Hotak dynastywhile the Russians had conquered many cities in northern Iran.
There they faced bold opposition from the local clans, including the Zands, who under the chief Mehdi Khan Zand harassed their forces and stopped them from advancing further into Iran.
He first defeated the Bakhtiari and Feyli Lurswhom he forced to mass-migrate in larger numbers into Khorasan. He then baited Mehdi Khan Zand and his forces out of their stronghold at Pari, killing the latter and of his Zand kinsmen.
The surviving members of the tribe were forced to mass-migrate under the leadership of Inaq Khan Zand and his younger brother Budaq Khan Zand to Abivard and Dargazwhere its able members, including Karim Beg were incorporated into Nader's army.
Karim Beg, who was at this time in his thirties, served as a cavalryman, and did not enjoy a high status in the army. Furthermore, he was also deprived of money, which made him commit theft—told by John R. Perry, in summary, as follows: Next day he heard that the saddler had been held responsible for the loss, and was to be executed.
Conscience-smitten, Karim surreptitiously replaced the saddle at the shop door, and watched from concealment. The saddler's wife was the first to discover; she fell on her knees, calling down blessings on the unknown thief who had a change of heart, praying that he might live to own a hundred such saddles.
In the spring ofAli Mardan attempted to capture the former Safavid capital of Isfahanbut was defeated at Murcheh Khvorta town near the city. He then started to dispatch messengers at Golpayegan to his regional opponents, which included Karim Khan and Zakariya Khan, who accepted his offer of terms, and combined their forces with the latter, which made the number of their men strengthen to 20, On Maythey stormed the gates of Isfahan—its governor Abu'l-Fath Khan Bakhtiari and other prominent residents assembled to protect the fortress of the city, but agreed to surrender and collaborate with them after Ali Mardan's reasonable proposals.
However, a few months later, while Karim Khan was on an expedition in KurdistanAli Mardan began breaking the terms which they had promised the inhabitants of Isfahan—he greatly increased his shakedown on the city, which New Julfa suffered the most from.
He then further broke the terms he had made with the two chieftains, by having Abu'l-Fath deposed and killed. He then appointed his uncle as the new governor of the city, and without conference, marched towards Shiraz and began pillaging the province of Fars.
They managed to seize the plunder of Ali Mardan and kill of his men, which forced the latter to withdraw to a more difficult passage to reach Isfahan. By winter, the forces of Ali Mardan had decreased even more due to abandonment from some of his men.
The situation worsened further for Ali Mardan, when Karim Khan returned to Isfahan in January and restored order in the city. A battle shortly occurred between them in Luristan —during the battle, Ismail III and Zakariya Khan who was now his viziertogether with several prominent officers, deserted Ali Mardan and joined Karim Khan, who eventually emerged victorious, forcing Ali Mardan and the remains of his men, together with the governor of Luristan, Ismail Khan Feyli, to retreat to Khuzestan.
The forces of Karim Khan shortly attacked their encampment, but were repelled. Ali Mardan then went further into domains of the Zands, which resulted in a battle with Karim Khan near Nahavand.
Ali Mardan, however, was once again defeated, and forced to withdraw into the mountains, where he went to the Ottoman city of Baghdad. Some months later, they marched into the domains of Karim Khan, but Tahmasp II's son, who had been announced as Sultan Husayn II, began revealing himself as an unfit candidate as Safavid shah—this hindered their march, and resulted in the desertion of many of their men.
Ali Mardan managed to flee with Sultan Husayn II, but not after long had him blinded and sent to Iraq, due to being more heavy weight than of use to him. Nevertheless, Karim Khan did not adopt the title of Shah for himself, preferring the title, Vakil e-Ra'aayaa Representative of the People.
The years from to Karim Khan's death in marked the zenith of Zand rule. He made Shiraz his capital and ordered the construction of several architectural projects there. Karim Khan later died on 1 Marchhaving been ill for six months, most likely due to tuberculosis. Following Karim Khan's death, civil war broke out once more, and none of his descendants were able to rule the country as effectively as he had.
War with the Ottoman Empire — [ edit ] Inthe Mamluk governor of the Ottoman province of Iraq, Omar Pasha began meddling in the affairs of his vassal principality of Babanwhich since the death of his predecessor Sulayman Abu Layla Pasha inhad fallen more and more under the influence of the Zand governor of ArdalanKhosrow Khan Bozorg.
This, and Omar Pasha's seizure of the remnants of Iranian pilgrims who had died during the plague that ravaged Iraq in —and his exaction of payment from Iranian pilgrims to visit the holy Shia places of Najaf and Karbalagave Karim Khan the casus belli to declare war against the Ottomans.
Most importantly, Basra was a prominent trading port, which had surpassed the competing city of Bushehr in Fars inwhen the East India Company dropped the city for Basra.Perserving our Heritage Level 1 Part 1, Moe Ccue C My Box-Spanish 6/Pk, Stone A Visit to the Suez Canal (), T.
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