Her father was a lieutenant colonel in the U. The family moved frequently with her father's duty assignments, and she took her first pictures when he was stationed in the Philippines during the Vietnam War. Education[ edit ] Leibovitz attended the San Francisco Art Institute where she studied painting with the intention of becoming an art teacher.
It was designed mostly by Charles P. Due to the success of the pilot run, the team went on to produce approximately 2, units over the next ten years. For his pioneering design and realization of the Alto, Charles P. KayButler Lampson, and Robert W.
Taylor for their work on Alto. Alto uses a microcoded design, but unlike many computers, the microcode engine is not hidden from the programmer in a layered design. Applications such as Pinball take advantage of this to accelerate performance.
The Alto has a bit-slice arithmetic logic unit ALU based on the Texas Instruments ' chip, a ROM control store with a writable control store extension and has expandable to kB of main memory organized in bit words.
Mass storage is provided by a hard disk drive that uses a removable 2. The base machine and one disk drive are housed in a cabinet about the size of a small refrigerator ; one more disk drive can be added via daisy-chaining.
Alto both blurred and ignored the lines between functional elements. Rather than a distinct central processing unit with a well-defined electrical interface e. The microcode machine supports up to 16 cooperative tasks, each with fixed priority.
The emulator task executes Personal portrait normal instruction set to which most applications are written; that instruction set is similar to, but not the same as, that of a Data General Nova. As an example, the bitmap display controller is Personal portrait more than a bit shift register ; microcode moves display refresh data from main memory to the shift register, which serializes it into a display of pixels corresponding to the ones and zeros of the memory data.
Ethernet is likewise supported by minimal hardware, with a shift register that acts bidirectionally to serialize output words and deserialize input words. Unlike most minicomputers of the era, Alto does not support a serial terminal for user interface. Apart from an Ethernet connection, the Alto's only common output device is a bi-level black and white cathode ray tube CRT display with a tilt-and-swivel base, mounted in portrait orientation rather than the more common "landscape" orientation.
Its input devices are a custom detachable keyboarda three-button mouseand an optional 5-key chorded keyboard chord keyset. The last two items had been introduced by SRI's On-Line System; while the mouse was an instant success among Alto users, the chord keyset never became popular.
In the early mice, the buttons were three narrow bars, arranged top to bottom rather than side to side; they were named after their colors in the documentation. The motion was sensed by two wheels perpendicular to each other.
These were soon replaced with a ball-type mouse, which was invented by Ronald E.
Rider and developed by Bill English. These were photo-mechanical mice, first using white light, and then infrared IRto count the rotations of wheels inside the mouse. The keyboard is interesting in that each key is represented as a separate bit in a set of memory locations.
As a result, it is possible to read multiple key presses concurrently. This trait can be used to alter from where on the disk the Alto boots.
The keyboard value is used as the sector address on the disk to boot from, and by holding specific keys down while pressing the boot button, different microcode and operating systems can be loaded. This gave rise to the expression "nose boot" where the keys needed to boot for a test OS release required more fingers than you could come up with.
Nose boots were made obsolete by the move2keys program that shifted files on the disk so that a specified key sequence could be used.
The Alto could also control external disk drives to act as a file server.
This was a common application for the machine. The Alto keyboard lacked the underscore key, which had been appropriated for the left-arrow character used in Mesa for the assignment operator. This feature of the Alto keyboard may have been the source for the CamelCase style for compound identifiers.
The Alto helped popularize the use of raster graphics model for all output, including text and graphics. It also introduced the concept of the bit block transfer operation bit blitBitBLTas the fundamental programming interface to the display.
Despite its small memory size, many innovative programs were written for the Alto, including:Official Chuck Close website.
© – Chuck Close. All Rights Reserved. Unless otherwise noted, all artwork reproduced courtesy the artist, Pace Prints, and. Official Chuck Close website.
© – Chuck Close. All Rights Reserved. Unless otherwise noted, all artwork reproduced courtesy the artist, Pace Prints, and. Chris Jordan's online photography gallery. Running the Numbers: An American Self-Portrait.
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