When examining the vast literature on critical thinking, various definitions of critical thinking emerge. Here are some samples:
Treffinger Teachers can help students become 21st-century problem solvers by introducing them to a broad range of thinking tools. If you doubt that we live in a world of accelerating change, just consider the everyday life experiences of millions of children and teenagers today: They can view live images from every corner of the world and talk with or exchange video images with other young people who live many time zones away.
They have more technology in their classrooms and in many cases, in their backpacks than existed in the workplaces of their parents Critical thinking in education powerpoint years ago. They will study subjects that were unknown when their teachers and parents were students, and they may well enter careers that do not exist today.
In contrast with most of their parents, more of today's young people will routinely come into contact with other people of diverse backgrounds and experiences. They will grow up to interact, collaborate, and compete with others around the globe. Once upon a time, educators might have said to their students, "If you'll pay close attention to what I'm going to teach you, you'll learn everything you need to know for a successful life.
We don't know all the information that today's students will need or all the answers to the questions they will face. Indeed, increasingly, we don't even know the questions. These realities mean that we must empower students to become creative thinkers, critical thinkers, and problem solvers—people who are continually learning and who can apply their new knowledge to complex, novel, open-ended challenges; people who will proceed confidently and competently into the new horizons of life and work.
In education, we routinely teach students how to use various sets of cognitive tools to make academic work easier, more efficient, or more productive: In teaching thinking, we need to give students cognitive tools and teach them to use these tools systematically to solve real-life problems and to manage change.
These tools apply to two essential categories: Creative Thinking, Critical Thinking What is creative thinking? What is critical thinking?
We often view these terms as opposites that are poles apart and incompatible. We stereotype the creative thinker as wild and zany, thriving on off-the-wall, impractical ideas; in contrast, we envision the critical thinker as serious, deep, analytical, and impersonal. Consider instead a different view—that these two ways of thinking are complementary and equally important.
Creative thinking involves searching for meaningful new connections by generating many unusual, original, and varied possibilities, as well as details that expand or enrich possibilities.
Critical thinking, on the other hand, involves examining possibilities carefully, fairly, and constructively—focusing your thoughts and actions by organizing and analyzing possibilities, refining and developing the most promising possibilities, ranking or prioritizing options, and choosing certain options.
Generating many possibilities is not enough by itself to help you solve a problem. Similarly, if you rely on focusing alone, you may have too few possibilities from which to choose. Effective problem solvers must think both creatively and critically, generating options and focusing their thinking. Both generating and focusing involve learning and applying certain guidelines attitudes and habits of mind that support effective thinking and tools.
Let's first look at the guidelines for generating and focusing, and then consider a number of specific tools.
Habits of the Mind for Generating Ideas Individuals or groups use generating tools to produce many, varied, or unusual possibilities; to develop new and interesting combinations of possibilities; or to add detail to new possibilities.
When generating options, productive thinkers separate generating from judging. They direct their effort and energy to producing possibilities that can be judged later. The more options a person or group generates, the greater the likelihood that at least some of those possibilities will be intriguing and potentially useful.
Even possibilities that seem wild or silly might serve as a springboard for someone to make an original and powerful new connection. It is often possible to increase the quantity and quality of options by building on the thinking of others or by seeing new combinations that may be stronger than any of their parts.
Brainstorming is probably the most widely known generating tool but often the most misunderstood and misused tool, too. Many people use the term brainstorming as a synonym for a general conversation, discussion, or exchange of views.
It is more accurate, however, to view brainstorming as a specific tool in which a person or a group follows the four guidelines described above to search for many possible responses to an open-ended task or question.
As illustrated in Figure 1, there are also several other tools for generating options Treffinger, Nassab, et al. Habits of the Mind for Focusing Ideas Focusing tools help individuals or groups analyze, organize, refine, develop, prioritize, evaluate, or select options from the set of possibilities they have at hand.
When focusing their thinking, productive thinkers examine options carefully but constructively, placing more emphasis on screening, supporting, or selecting options than on criticizing them.How PowerPoint is killing critical thought Andrew Smith Bored students is the least of it – the bullet point-ization of information is making us stupid and irresponsible.
Critical Thinking (Halpern, ; )the use of cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a desirable initiativeblog.comeful, reasoned, and goal-directed thinkinginvolved in successful problem solving, formulating inferences, calculating likelihoods, and making decisionsCritical thinking is a skill and a disposition.
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The benefits of critical thinking sarahjosh Critical Thinking in Nursing Definition Critical thinking is an active, organized, cognitive process used to carefully examine one s thinking and the thinking of – PowerPoint PPT presentation Number of Views: Download pre-designed templates on critical thinking with attractive & creative slide designs that you can use to make presentations on Critical Thinking topics & procedures.
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