September Volume 70 Number 1 Feedback for Learning Pages Seven Keys to Effective Feedback Grant Wiggins Advice, evaluation, grades—none of these provide the descriptive information that students need to reach their goals. What is true feedback—and how can it improve learning? Who would dispute the idea that feedback is a good thing? Both common sense and research make it clear:
Tweet Peer teaching is not a new concept. It was first organized as a theory by Scotsman Andrew Bell inand later implemented into French and English schools in the 19th century.
Over the past years, peer teaching has become increasingly popular in conjunction with mixed ability grouping in K public schools and an interest in more financially efficient methods of teaching.
Not to be confused with peer instruction—a relatively new concept designed by Harvard professor Eric Mazur in the early s— peer teaching is a method by which one student instructs another student in material on which the first is an expert and the second is a novice.
Goodlad and Hurst and Topping note that academic peer tutoring at the college level takes many different forms. Surrogate teaching, common at larger universities, involves giving older students, often graduates or advanced undergraduates, some or all of the teaching responsibility for undergraduate courses.
Proctoring programs involve one-on-one tutoring by students who are slightly ahead of other students, or who have successfully demonstrated proficiency with the material in the recent past.
Cooperative learning divides classmates into small groups, with each person in the group responsible for teaching others, and each contributing a unique piece to the group performance on a task.
Reciprocal peer tutoring RPTa more specific version of cooperative learning, groups classmates into pairs to tutor each other. The main benefits of peer teaching include, but are not limited to, the following: Students receive more time for individualized learning.
Direct interaction between students promotes active learning. Peer teachers reinforce their own learning by instructing others.
Students feel more comfortable and open when interacting with a peer. Peers and students share a similar discourse, allowing for greater understanding. Peer teaching is a financially efficient alternative to hiring more staff members.
Teachers receive more time to focus on the next lesson.
Research also indicates that peer learning activities typically yield the following results for both tutor and tutee: Improve peer teaching with an online Certificate in Education Support The Evidence Various peer teaching programs have cropped up at universities around the world in the past few decades, promoting the notion of peer-assisted learning.
Nearly every institute of higher education in the world provides peer tutoring opportunities for struggling students and teaching assistant positions for advanced students. These tutorials provide students extra conversation practice in Mandarin and guidance with homework assignments, while giving students an opportunity to befriend and be a part of the lives of their Chinese peers.
Past students have stated that their peer tutors were one of the favorite aspects of the program. Senior students enroll with TAFE and are trained in reading assistance by participating in set modules on theory. At school, the tutors participate in fieldwork by supporting junior students in the reading of the actual classroom texts from their various subjects during Drop Everything and Read sessions on four days per week.
The program demonstrates significant success in the full range of government schools including coeducational, girls, boys, central, collegiate and primary schools. The success achieved by Aboriginal students and by boys is particularly significant. The Peer Tutoring Program at Duke University in North Carolina offers up to twelve hours of free tutoring each semester to Duke undergraduates who are in enrolled in select introductory-level courses.
Students meet with a tutor weekly in a convenient public location on campus such as an empty classroom, the library, or a dorm common area.
All peer tutors receive on-going training both in best current tutoring practices and on tutoring strategies relevant to their tutoring discipline.
Despite the continued popularity of college student peer tutoring, there exists little comprehensive research on its effectiveness and benefits.
What research does exist, however, has found that peer tutoring is highly cost-effective and usually results in substantial gains for participants, both academically and socially.
The program requires students in a large introductory psychology course to meet with student partners periodically throughout the course to quiz each other and discuss the main ideas for each unit of the course.
Largely a commuter college, the program seeks to increase academic success, as well as to increase the social integration of the students. The program has been highly successful in both respects: Carsrud describes an example of a surrogate teaching method in which doctoral students supervised undergraduate psychology students in conducting research projects.
One of the major goals of this program was to encourage highly motivated and well-prepared students to become interested in pursuing research through skill development and exposure to first-hand experience.
The undergraduates worked closely with the graduate students in designing and implementing the research, and were required to produce a professional-style report at the end of the study. In addition, it was noted that 20 of the 25 undergraduate students entered graduate programs in psychology within one year of graduation.
However, the study lacked a control group of comparable students without exposure to surrogate teaching and it is therefore possible that those who entered graduate school were already graduate school bound.
A different type of surrogate teaching program was used in an introductory psychology class at Washington State University. Students were given the choice of attending weekly supplemental discussion sessions led by senior undergraduates or participating as subjects in various research projects within the department.
Those who opted for the supplemental discussion sessions were assigned to either a maximal group six students to one tutor or a minimal group twenty students to one tutor. Students who were in the tutoring groups performed significantly better on the class exams than did the control subjects who merely served as research subjects.
In early learning institutions, the effectiveness—if not the widespread use— of peer teaching is equally apparent.Peer feedback is not simple, but it can be a great way to build intellectual community in the classroom and help students help one another improve their work, skills, and knowledge base.
Seven Keys to Effective Feedback. Grant Wiggins. Advice, evaluation, grades—none of these provide the descriptive information that students need to reach their goals.
In my experience as a teacher of teachers, I have always found such pure feedback to be accepted and welcomed. however, to train students to do small-group peer review. teaching and learning. The purpose of this research was to introduce an intervention to a group • observations of peer assessment feedback between students • questionnaires gathered from the three students who were unable to be interviewed.
The students had become accustomed to using ‘Post-its’ for recording and sharing ideas. Involving students in feedback ; Liu, N. and Carless, D. () Peer feedback: the learning element of peer assessment. Designing student peer assessment in higher education: analysis of written and oral peer feedback.
Teaching in Higher Education, 11(2), pp Fishbowling Feedback. When her students are initially learning to provide peer feedback, Ms.
Loh knows they need models and opportunities to practice. The Evidence. Various peer teaching programs have cropped up at universities around the world in the past few decades, promoting the notion of peer-assisted initiativeblog.com every institute of higher education in the world provides peer tutoring opportunities for struggling students and teaching assistant positions for advanced students.